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What is Chemistry? It is the study of the basic units that make up all substances. These basic units are called atoms. There are some substances that require two or more atoms to exist, and these combinations are called molecules. The atom or the molecule is the smallest unit into which any substance can be broken. These basic units of atoms and molecules can react with each other to form new substances with completely new characteristics.

By using a set sample size, we can determine the concentration of that sample if we accurately measure the amount of titrating (neutralizing) solution required to neutralize the sample. The drops of a titrating solution are a good measure because drops are relatively consistent in size. We can also use milliliters if using a dilute titrating solution. If the product is alkaline (base) we use an acid; if the product is acid we use a base titrating solution. Alkaline, for example, requires an acid titrating solution while the acid require an alkaline titrating solution.

Water is the most common substance known to man, as well as the most important. In vapor, liquid or solid form, water covers more than seventy percent of the Earth's surface, and is a major component of the atmosphere. Water is also an essential requirement for all forms of life. Most living things are largely made up of water. Human beings, for example, consist of about two-thirds water.

Just as the kilometer is a measure of distance, and the hour a measure of time, the pH unit measures the degree of acidity or basicity of a solution. To be more exact, pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion concentration, [H+ ]. Every aqueous solution can be measured to determine its pH value. This value ranges from 0 to 14 pH. Values below 7 pH exhibit acidic properties, and values above 7 pH exhibit basic (also known as caustic or alkaline) properties. Since 7 pH is the center of the measurement scale, it is neither acidic nor basic and is, therefore, called "neutral."

Left out of solution, the pH glass membranes will become dehydrated. After this happens, the pH sensor will have slower response and a higher than normal impedance when it is put back into operation. Repeated dehydration and re-use will dramatically reduce the normal service life of the pH sensor. Prolonged dehydration will cause the glass membrane to completely fail.

This is a basic guide for every metal finishing employee or salesperson. Metal cleaning is definitely an essential step in every metal fabricating, assembling and finishing operation. If you can start with a clean part the rest of your job can be a whole lot easier. Cleaning is generally defined as the removal of dirt or soil which is simply matter out of place. Painting, plating, anodizing, phosphating, conversion coating, and ceramic, PTFE, PVD coatings are finishing operations that require the metal surfaces to be free of industrial soil.

This course will deal mainly with alkaline cleaners, but will discuss acid, neutral, and solvent and emulsion cleaners as well. The iron phosphate cleaners which make up the bulk of the acid cleaners are covered in great length in the Phosphatizing Course. In this course, we will cover various metal cleaners, the differences between some cleaners, what to look for during a plant survey, how Milanco’s' products are applied, and how to choose the right cleaner.

In a five-stage washer, the phosphate will normally be applied in the third stage. It is preceded by an alkaline cleaner in the first stage to remove all the contaminants from the surface. The second stage would be an overflowing fresh water rinse. Rinsing is very important for two reasons. First, you want to make sure all the contaminants are removed from the surface. You can't get a good phosphate, unless you have a clean surface. Secondly, you want to make sure the chemical from stage one has been removed. This will prevent cross-contamination and eliminate chemical carry-over from one tank to the next. Stage four would be a fresh water rinse and stage five would be a water rinse or seal, preferably a seal. This final seal will give you even greater corrosion protection.

Less than 3 percent of the water found in nature is usable as is. This usable supply, which includes clear lake waters, some clean rivers, and some well waters, is a fairly fixed commodity pressured by an increasing usage by mankind. These usable waters often must be cleaned up prior to human and industrial consumption. City water works remove pathogenic and slits from the water processed for consumers. To enhance product taste, beverage bottlers treat water they draw from the city. These treatment processes include influent clarification (separating solids in and from the incoming water).

Each industry generates its own type of contaminating solids. Fats and oils tend to float on water, while denser solids, like sands, will settle. Large masses separate rapidly in water. Normally solids are encountered as a very fine suspension slow to either float or settle in water. Separation Polymer products act like chemical magnets, attracting finely suspended solids into larger masses which separate much faster in the water. Though there are many types of solids to be separated from water, the systems are basically designed to separate the solids from water after allowing them to either float and/or settle. When solids still resist these tendencies, a system may be designed to filter out the solids.

The following example illustrates some basic ways our prospects separate contaminants from water. Imagine adding instant hot chocolate mix and marshmallows to a cup of hot water. Some solids are readily dissolved and some are not. Momentarily stir the imaginary contents then let the cup stand. The marshmallows float to the surface of the mixture. Flotation is one way to achieve separation of undissolved solids settle to the bottom of the cup. Settling or sedimentation is another way of separating undissolved solids from a liquid. Pour the hot chocolate through a coffee filter. Filtration is yet another way of separating undissolved solids from a liquid. Industry uses flotation, sedimentation and filtration to separate undissolved contaminants from volumes of dirtied water. Milanco waste water treatment products help these techniques work better.

The objective of the operation of most treatment facilities is clear water. More importantly, though, a successful application means clear water that meets environmental standards. The primary concern of most wastewater treatment operators is compliance with government regulations. Helping system operators meet that objective is a major opportunity for making a sale. Precipitation involves the change from a dissolved form into an undissolved, particulate form. In order to settle (or float) suspended solids from water they must be precipitated from the dissolved form into the undissolved form.

You should now be routinely thinking; Precipitation-Coagulation-Flocculation-Separation. Well, people often erroneously feel that flocculation most influences separation. When the solids aren’t separating right, the polymer flocculant is often suspected. But, you already know there is more to it than that. So what do you do when a industrial operator points out that there are solids in a clarified water sample, no clarification in the clarification stage, or no flocculation in the flocculation stage? What if the operator says "...the floc (polymer flocculant) isn’t working"...

Let's now assume that you have selected the right product and the right product concentration. You're definitely off on the right foot, but you're still far from a smooth-running cutting fluid account. After you have chosen the product and mixing dilution, the first thing to do is clean the machine or machines. Putting fresh new coolant into a dirty sump is asking for problems. You have most likely gotten a shot at this account: because you've convinced the engineer or maintenance foreman that you could solve a particular problem.

Now that we know what type cutting fluids are available, it is time to learn where to use the various types. First, however, let's list some of the qualities required in a good cutting fluid.

When you hear someone mention the term cutting fluid these days, that person is most probably referring to one of the four major types. This lesson will cover those types and their differences.

We still have only a very limited understanding of most aspects about our planet. Answering questions about this is essential for understanding the mechanistic role it plays on other scientific processes, and for developing tools to further explore this research avenue with more sensitive measurements and improved data collection.

Cooling towers are a vital link in a complex system that transfers heat from one point to another. A common use of cooling towers is in air conditioning systems. The air conditioner draws heat from the air in the building and transfers it to water in the cooling tower system. The cooling tower system takes the hot water outside the building, cools it through contact with the air, and then recycles it.

This lesson outlines cooling tower control procedures. We cover corrosion inhibitors and biological controls. You will also find a chart with typical cooling tower control ranges.

A boiler is a tank in which water is converted to steam for heating buildings and for any of the many operations that require heat or steam. There are basically two types of boilers...